Group International Timeline

The documents digitized by our group cover a large span of time that runs from the early 20th century to modern day, with events being sprinkled throughout in Mozambique, Zimbabwe(Rhodesia), Namibia, South Africa, Antigua, Haiti, Cuba, Russia, The United States, Sudan, Rwanda, and many more places.  The series of events that I think is most important to consider however, is how the conflicts in Zimbabwe and Mozambique were directly influenced by apartheid in South Africa, and how the situation became a political game global powers due to the Cold War.

Although Mozambique officially gained independence in 1975, the years that followed were wrought with violence, as the FRELIMO (The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique) government met with continuous conflict with RENAMO (The Mozambican National Resistance) and the neighboring states of South Africa and Rhodesia.  Mozambique, in support of Zimbabwe’s independence, imposed sanctions on Rhodesia, which in turn led to South Africa aiding the RENAMO guerrillas.

Meanwhile, the cold war was influencing political decisions of the United States, Russia, and Cuba. This is also a time period of African decolonization, and reconstruction, heavily influenced by Reaganomics, and the IMF. Reagan was not an active opponent to apartheid, and this could for a number of reasons, but it is worth mentioning that the ANC aligned themselves leftist politics, being supported by communist and socialist organizations. Fidel Castro sent aid to both FRELIMO, and the ANC prior to the end of apartheid, and had requested that Russia in assaulting South Africa to end it.

All of this come to a head with the Nkomati Accord in 1984, which ended aggression both between South Africa and the ANC, as well as South Africa and Mozambique. However, by this time Mozambique had already suffered droughts, and nearly a decade of war, and was struggling to re-mediate their devastated infrastructure. South Africa would also experience the pains of liberation as forced removals had created a land crisis which had no clear solution, among numerous legislative and cultural hurdles to overcome to distance themselves from the apartheid National Party.


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